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  • Carcinoma

    Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.

  • Ficlatuzumab

    (also known by its research code AV-299): A potent humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets hepatocyte growth factor, or HGF.

  • Head and neck cancer

    Cancer that arises in the head or neck region (in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, salivary glands, throat, or larynx [voice box]).

  • HGF

    Hepatocyte growth factor, part of a signaling pathway that contributes to resistance to certain types of anticancer drugs. (See HGF/CMET pathway.)

  • HGF/cMET pathway

    A pathway implicated as an escape mechanism for epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, blockade. Blocking this pathway may allow an EGFR inhibitor to continue working if resistance develops.

  • Immunoglobulin

    A protein that is made by B cells and plasma cells (types of white blood cells) and helps the body fight infection. Some immunoglobulins may be found in higher than normal amounts in people with certain conditions or certain types of cancer. Measuring the amount of specific immunoglobulins in the blood and urine may help diagnose cancer or find out how well treatment is working or if cancer has come back. Some immunoglobulins may be used as tumor markers. Also called Ig.

  • Metastatic

    Having to do with metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from the primary site (place where it started) to other places in the body.

  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb)

    A type of protein that is made in the laboratory and can bind to certain targets in the body, such as antigens on the surface of cancer cells. There are many kinds of monoclonal antibodies, and each monoclonal antibody is made so that it binds to only one antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are being used in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, including some types of cancer. They can be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive substances directly to cancer cells.

  • Recurrent [cancer]

    Cancer that has recurred (come back), usually after a period of time during which the cancer could not be detected. The cancer may come back to the same place as the original (primary) tumor or to another place in the body. Also called recurrence.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are squamous cell carcinomas. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.